Envis Centre, Ministry of Environment & Forest, Govt. of India

Printed Date: Wednesday, January 19, 2022

Bio- medical waste

Hospital waste is generated during the diagnosis, treatment, or immunization of human beings or animals or in research activities in these fields or in the production or testing of biologicals. It may include wastes like sharps, soiled waste, disposables, anatomical waste, cultures, discarded medicines, chemical wastes, etc. These are in the form of disposable syringes, swabs, bandages, body fluids, human excreta, etc. This waste is highly infectious and can be a serious threat to human health if not managed in a scientific and discriminate manner. It has been roughly estimated that of the 4 kg of waste generated in a hospital at least 1 kg would be infected.

 
Surveys carried out by various agencies show that the health care establishments in India are not giving due attention to their waste management. After the notification of the Bio-medical Waste (Handling and Management) Rules, 1998, these establishments are slowly streamlining the process of waste segregation, collection, treatment, and disposal. Many of the larger hospitals have either installed the treatment facilities or are in the process of doing so.

Biomedical Waste Management Rules were adopted in 2000. Regulators and waste generators are still in the process of evolving strategies and action plans to implement this regulation. Given the early stage of public attention to this issue, the information base currently available does not elucidate on the nature and extent of the problem. UPSPCB is in the process of inventorising all categories of biomedical waste generation.

Quick estimates of biomedical waste


District wise biomedical waste generation potential is estimated based on the number of hospital beds. The total quantity if biomedical waste for UP is estimated at 20.7 MT per day. A WHO study has shown that, of the total biomedical waste, about 85 percent is non-infectious, 10 percent is infectious but non-hazardous and rest 5 percent is both infectious as well as hazardous in nature (CPCB, 2000).

Inadequate compliance from hospitals


Hospitals, which came under the regulatory purview of the UPSPCB for the first time, are reluctantly coming forward to seek approval for disposal of; biomedical waste, Of the 1624 hospitals identified in the state, only 344 (21%) either own or use common incineration facilities for disposal of biomedical waste. Even among these 344 hospitals, only 12 (<1%) have obtained approval from UPSPCB FOR disposal of biomedical waste.

BIO-MEDICAL WASTE RULES


The Ministry of Environment & Forests Government of India has notified Bio- medical wastes (Handling and Management) Rules 1998 under section 6,8 and 25 of Environment (Protection) Act 1986. Rules have been subsequently amended in 2000. The rules have been framed to ensure protection of environment. Prescribed standards for handling and treatment and disposal of bio-medical wastes have been laid down along with responsibilities of concerned.

BIOMEDICAL WASTE - Segregation, Collection and Packaging

 

Collection Mode

Type of Waste

Treatment

Yellow Bags

Anatomical & Animal Waste,

Incineration

 

Microbiology & Biotechnology

Deep burial

 

Waste, Solid Waste (dressings etc.)

 

 

 

 

Red Bags

Microbiology, Solid Waste

Autoclaving/

 

(Disposable plastic waste) and soiled

Microwaving

 

 

chemical

 

 

treatment

 

 

 

White

Sharps, plastic

Autoclaving

Plastic or

 

Chemical

puncture

 

treatment

proof containing

 

 

 

 

 

Black

Discarded medicines

Secured Landfill

 

Incineration ash Chemicals

 


SOURCE: HTTP://EDUGREEN.TERI.RES.IN

Other standards for treatment
 

  • Standards for autoclaving have been prescribed and validation test also prescribed.
  • Standards for liquid waste have been prescribed.
  • Standards for microwave treatment have also been prescribed.
  • Standards for deep burial prescribed.

TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR BIOMEDICAL WASTE

  • Incineration
  • Deep Burial
  • Autoclaving
  • Shredding
  • Needle cutters
  • Microwaving
  • Disinfection
  • Chemical Treatment (1% by hypochlorite soln.)
  • Secured Landfill

1.

Primary Chamber Temp.

800 + 500C

2.

Secondary Chamber Temp.  
Gas residence Time

1050 + 500C 
One second

3.

Only low sulphur fuel to be used

LDO/Diesel/LPG

4.

Emission 
(Fitted with APCS)

SPM 150 mg/Nm3
Nox 150 mg/Nm3
HCI 150 mg/Nm3

5.

Minimum Stack Height

30 Meter


DEEP BURIAL
 

  • TRENCH - 2 M DEEP to be half filled by waste
  • SOIL layer 10 cm after each disposal
  • LIME layer 30 cm
  • SOIL on top
  • FENCED And COVERED with wire net/mesh
  • FOR LESS THAN 5 LAC POPULATION TOWNS & RURAL AREAS


SOURCE: U.P. POLLUTION CONTROL BOARD

 

Status of CBWTF as on 10-06-2013

 

Sl. No.

Name & Address of CBWTF with phone no.

Name of cities/ areas covered by

CBWTF

Total no. of

HCFs being

covered

Total  no. of

beds covered

I

M/s Synergy Waste Management

(P) Ltd. Meerut Ph.O1 1-26933371.

011-26933372

Noida, Ghaziabad, Meerut, Muzaffarnagar, Baghpat, Bulandshahr, Saharanpur, Bijnore, Moradabad.

922

8873

2

M/s Bio Medical Waste Disposal

Agcncey, Mathura

Mobile-09412280833

Aligarh. Kashganj

216

3718

3

M/s     Dutt      Enterprises     Ltd, 29,Alkapuri, Daya1bagh, Agra

Mob. No. 9997981999

Mathura, Agra, Hathras, Aligarh,

Mainpuri, Etah, Etawah, Shikohabad, Firozabad

677

6870

4

M/s Samb Ramkey Pvt. Ltd.,C-21,

M.G. Road Ind. Area Ghaziabad.

Gaziabad, Noida, Meerut, Moradabad

Hapur

545

8410

5

M/s Center for Pollution

Control, Mohansarai, Varanasi

Varanasi, Jaunpur, Azamgarh, Chandauli

Balia , Sant ravidas Nagar

272

4898

6

M/s Medical Pollution Control

Committee,   D-4   Growth   Centre,

Bijoli, Jhansi 09628369361

Jhansi, La1itpur, Mahoba, Jalaun

1 52

2950

7

M/s SNG Mercantile Pvt. Ltd., Barailly CTF Viii. Benipur Chaudharj near city station Bareilly, 09411071936

Bareilly, Rampur, Pilibhit, Badaun Shahjahapur, Lakimpurkhiri, Jyoti Ba Phule Nagar

375

6236

8

Mls  Senergy  Waste  Management

Co, Ltd, Barabanki

Barabanki, Lucknow, Sitapur,

Mahmudabad

250

6444

9

M/s   MPCC      Kanpur   CTF 148, Bhaila Mau,Bhaila, Kanpur

9839111500

Kanpur, Unnao, Kanpur Dehat, Kannauj,

Fatehpur, Banda, Auraiya, Hamirpur,

Chitrakoot

411

5136

10

M/s   Willward      lnvirinc,    Kanpur

Nagar

Kanpur nagar

1 56

2064

II

M/s Ferro Build Hards (India) Pvt.

Ltd.  83A,  Maheba  Purab Patti , Mirzapur Road, Naini,

Allahabad-07, 09415322193

 Allahabad, Pratapgarh, Sultanpur, Rae

 Baraeli

309

7296

12

M/s S.S. Medical System (Ind.) Pvt.

Ltd,    Mauayama   Raibareli Road

Faizabad, 09839022234

Faizabad, Gonda, Bahraich, Shrawasti, Ambedkar Nagar, Balrampur, Barabanki, Lucknow

646

11000

13

M/s SNG Mercantile Pvt. Ltd., Plot

no. D-33 U PSIDC,  Industrial Area

Khalilabad, 09670365114

Gorakhpur, Kusinagar, Deoria, Basti,

Maharajganj, Siddharth Nagar, Khalilabad

220

4000

 

Status of Hospitals & Nursing Home under Biomedical Waste (Management and Handling) Rule 1998 as amended 2000

April - 2011 

Bed Capacity

Total No of Hospitals

Having treatment facility or attached to combined incinerator

No of hospitals having license

500 or more then 500 beds

21

21

10

More then 200 less then 500 beds

51

48

19

More then 50 but  less then 200 beds

263

247

135

Less then 50 beds

3921

3726

2760

Others

739

683

493

Total

4995

4725

3417

 

 

Status of Hospitals & Nursing Home under Biomedical Waste (Management and Handling) Rule 1998 as amended 2000

April - 2010

Bed Capacity

Total No of Hospitals

Having treatment facility or attached to combined incinerator

No of hospitals having license

500 or more then 500 beds

18

18

5

More then 200 less then 500 beds

49

46

15

More then 50 but  less then 200 beds

270

255

121

Less then 50 beds

3615

3300

1825

Others

707

638

337

Total

4659

4257

2303

 

 

Status of Hospitals & Nursing Home under Biomedical Waste (Management and Handling) Rule 1998 as amended 2000

June - 2009

Bed Capacity

Total No of Hospitals

Having treatment facility or attached to combined incinerator

No of hospitals having license

500 or more then 500 beds

17

15

4

More then 200 less then 500 beds

46

36

13

More then 50 but  less then 200 beds

244

190

82

Less then 50 beds

3226

2519

898

Others

713

507

184

Total

4246

3267

1181

 

 

Status of Action Taken on concerned Hospitals and other isntitutions by the U.P. Pollution Control Board and Number of Hospitals in 2007-2008 under Biomedical Waste (Management and Handling) Rule 1998

March 2009

Bed Capacity

Total No of Hospitals

Having treatment facility or attached to combined incinerator

No of hospitals having license

500 or more then 500 beds

16

14

05

More then 200 less then 500 beds

43

31

07

More then 50 but  less then 200 beds

238

170

97

Less then 50 beds

2853

2221

963

Others

586

480

207

Total

3736

2916

1279

 


Information on Common Bio-Medical Waste Treatment Facility (CBWTF)

 

Sr. No.

Name & Address of operator

Name of cities/Areas covered

1.

M/s Synergy Waste Management Co.Ltd. Subhartipuram.

Meerut,Baghpat,Noida,Ghaziabad,
Saharanpur

2.

M/s Medical Pollution Control Committee Bhaunti, Kanpur

Kanpur

3.

M/s Willboard Enviro.Inc.Chaudharipur,
Kanpur .

Kanpur

4.

M/s Ferro Build Hards India(p) ltd; 83A, Maheva, Purabatti, Mirzapur Road. Allahabad .

Allahabad

5.

Nagar Nigam, Lucknow

Lucknow

6.

Balrampur Hospitals, Golaganj; Lucknow .

Lucknow

7.

M/s Medicare Inc.(p) Ltd.C-21, Meerut, Gulaothi Road UPSIDC Ind.Area Ghaziabad .

Ghaziabad, Noida, Moradabad,
Saharanpur

8.

Secretary IMA Mathura Vrindavan

Mathura, (presently closed)

9.

M/s Medical Pollution Control Committee Bijauli, Jhansi .

Jhansi

10.

M/s Envirad medicare (p) Ltd. Road No.4 Parsakheda, Bareilly .

Bareilly, Moradabad

11.

M/s Medical Pollution Control Committee Sawai, Etmadpur, Barhan Road, Agra .

Agra (closed at present)

12.

Centre for Pollution Control, Raja Ka Talab; Varanasi

Varanasi

13.

Fatima hospital, Lucknow

Lucknow

14.

M/s Synergy Waste Management Co. Ltd. Bareilly .

Bareilly

15.

M/s HAAT Incinerator India (p) Ltd.
Mathura Road, Aligarh .

Aligarh

16.

M/s Datt Enterprises Ltd. Etmadpur, Agra .

Agra

17.

M/s Pollution Solutions Mathura .

Mathura (presently closed)


SOURCE: U.P. POLLUTION CONTROL BOARD



Updated Progress Report
 

Year

No. of Identified HCF

Indiviual/CBWTF

No. of CBWTF

2001-2002

1831

293

6

2002-2003

2329

662

6

2003-2004

2769

730

11

2004-2005

3224

1581

12+3 (under construction)

2005-2006

3299

2049

16