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| Last Updated:: 17/02/2017

Energy Conservation

Energy Conservation

When you look around you at all the machines that are running, the lights, fans, cars, etc., you simply cannot imagine life without all these. But can you imagine the amount of energy that is being used to run all this? Fortunately, people all over the world are becoming aware of the problem of consuming too much energy and are making a conscious effort to conserve it and thereby put less pressure on the earth. By conserving energy we also lower the amount of pollutants we release into the air and thereby help to keep the air clean.

The interaction between the natural resources and the population has to be maintained at a balance in order to ensure the continuity of the human race. Energy is essential to life and its conservation has become an absolute necessity.

There are two types of energy, renewable and non-renewable sources of energy. The non-renewable sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, and mineral oil are gradually becoming exhausted as we are over-tapping these resources. People are now looking towards alternative sources of energy such as wind, sun, the ocean, etc. for taping energy. These are the renewable sources of energy and will not exhaust.

Concerns over the negative environmental impacts of inefficient uses of energy are growing, both globally and regionally. Such concerns require greater national efforts and greater international cooperation to promote energy efficiency and energy conservation. Local air pollution, emissions of greenhouse gases, and acidification of soil and water can all be reduced if energy and resource conservation concepts are more widely applied. Such concerns require greater national efforts and greater international cooperation to promote energy efficiency and energy conservation. More efficient energy use can increase productivity and economic competitiveness as well as lower greenhouse gas emissions per unit of output.

Energy conservation has been recognized as a national priority for a very long time, but concrete steps have not been taken seriously and the few that have been taken lack in perspective and determination. The growth and demand for energy is increasing at a very fast rate, specially in the industrial sector, the transport sector and the house hold sector, thereby putting a great deal of pressure on the available resources. The need of the hour has now become conservation and preservation. Conservation and efficient use of energy in industry has for a long time been a priority of the Government of India. People on their part should become aware of the seriousness and do their best to conserve and preserve this energy.

Domestic Sector


  1. Begin by switching off the lights and the fans in the rooms that are not occupied. Make sure that everyone in the family does the same.
  2. Use CFLs (compact fluorescent lamps) instead of ordinary incandescent lamps. These lamps may be more expensive but they last longer than the ordinary bulbs and are very energy efficient as they consume much less power.
  3. Use the washing machine at full loads, as the consumption of water will be the same whether you put in half a load of clothes or a full load.
  4. Mix hot water in the bucket for a bath rather than using a geyser shower. Showers consume more power and up to 90 litres of water for a bath.
  5. Change the heat element in the geyser every 5–6 years; this will enable heating to be faster and also save valuable power.
  6. Try using the air conditioner an hour or two less every day. Switch on the air conditioner only when you go into the room and switch it off after a few hours as the room will remain cool for the next few hours. Keep the doors and the windows shut even after it is switched off. Clean the filter at least once a fortnight. A choked filter means improper cooling and more power consumption.
  7. Plug on your iron only after you get all your clothes together.
  8. Replace traditional chokes of tube lights with electronic chokes. They save two-third energy lost in chokes.
  9. Use light colours on the walls of your rooms; this helps reduce lighting requirements up to 40%.
  10. Keep the lights and fixtures clean and dirt free. Dust and dirt reduce lighting levels by as much as 30%.
  11. Clean and lubricate your fans regularly and replace old regulators with electronic regulators. This helps reduce electricity consumption significantly at low speeds.
  12. Cool the food properly before storing in the fridge. Check on the gasket lining or the seal of the fridge. Avoid opening the door frequently. Defrost the fridge regularly, this reduces the power consumption.
  13. Buy only those appliances that are essential and try to get the maximum benefit from them.


In the kitchen



While cooking, use wide bottom vessels with lids. Allow food articles taken out of the refrigerators to attain room temperature before cooking them.


Soak cereals and dals for some time before cooking them to reduce the cooking time as well as the fuel consumption. Use just sufficient water for cooking.


Pressure cookers used with separators lead to substantial fuel saving. Reduce flame by bringing the burner knob to the simmer position as soon as the water starts boiling.


Try to eat together to avoid repeated warming of food. This not only saves fuel but also preserves the nutritional value of food.


Light the flame only after all preparations have been made and the vessel is ready to be put on the stove


Use hot water from solar water heaters for cooking if the facility is available. Try to use a solar cooker if facility and time permit.

Consumption levels of some commonly used appliances




Instant geyser

3000 W

3 units/hour

Immersion rod

1000 W

1 unit/hour

Air conditioner

15002500 W

8.514.5 units/day

Air cooler

170 W

1.7 units/day


60 W

0.6 unit/day


200 W

2 units/day

Electric kettle

10002000 W

12 units/hour

Hot plate

10001500 W

11.5 units/hour


1000 W

1 unit/hour


800 W

0.8 unit/hour


750 W

0.650.75 unit/hour

Incandescent bulb

100/60/40 W

0.5/0.3/0.2 unit/day

Fluorescent lamp

40/20 W

0.28/0.15 unit/day

Slim tube

36 W

0.26 unit/day

Compact fluorescent lamp

7/9/11/13 W

0.060.09 unit/day

Source: Energy Management Centre, Ministry of Power, Government of India 

Transports Sector


  • The first rule of fuel conservation would be to plan travel in such a manner that will curtail wasteful driving.
  • Wherever possible and convenient, use public transport instead of using personal transport.
  • If you have the option of a personal car and a scooter, use the scooter when only two persons have to travel and the car if more persons have to travel or heavy luggage needs to be transported. This will go a long way in conserving fuel.
  • Car-pooling to work is a very effective means of conserving fuel.
  • Following traffic signals will help avoid traffic jams that lead to a great deal of wastage of fuel.
  • As far as possible, avoid idling the vehicle, be it a car, scooter, or any other mechanized transport.
  • Regular servicing and tuning of the vehicle makes it more efficient and thereby helps in fuel conservation and emission control. This should include checking of injectors and spark plugs, correct tyre pressure, re-greasing, topping up, or renewal of lubricants for engine and gearboxes.
  • The use of quality lubricant is extremely important and should not be compromised.
  • Correct driving habits are important for conservation. Try to avoid sudden speeding, braking and stopping, clutch riding, idling, over-speeding, and over-loading.
  • The use of public transport should be encouraged and priority should be given to improving the public transport system. Improvement and streamlining of mass transportation systems will lower energy consumption.

Industrial Sector

  • Waste heat recovery systems, cogeneration, and the utilization of alternative sources of energy are also important for the conservation of energy.
  • Technology, upgradation, modernization, and the introduction of control instrumentation are necessary to realize the full potential of energy conservation in industry.
  • To motivate the industrial sector to take up energy conservation seriously, the government has from time to time introduced fiscal incentives such as cut on import duty for specific items. Effectively from 1983 certain tax benefits have been given to energy-saving devices and systems in the industrial sector such as cogeneration systems, power factor correcting devices, and specialized boilers and furnaces.
  • The coal industry is both a source of energy and a consumer of energy. Energy can be conserved in both these areas. Coal reserves can be conserved through proper methods of exploration, improved recovery, and introduction of new mining technologies.
  • Hydrocarbons continue to be the major source of energy. The conservation of this form of energy is essential, as it will reduce environmental pollution.